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Check system status. Toggle navigation Menu. Name of resource. Problem URL. Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Solid waste management in the world's cities : water and sanitation in the world's cities Physical description xxviii, p. Online Available online. Full view. Green Library. S F Unknown. More options. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.

Contents 1.

  • Starting a Yahoo! Business For Dummies.
  • One of Africa’s most promising cities has a trash problem.
  • Little Angels: An International Legal Perspective on Child Discrimination;
  • Historical background!
  • Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities : Water and Sanitation in the World’s Cities 2010;

Executive Summary 2. Introduction and Key Concepts - Introducing this book - The scale of the solid waste problem - Learning from history - Moving towards sustainable solutions 3. Even those households with a toilet, many are not connected to the main sewer line. These result into fecal matter being disposed of in open spaces while other households do not have any form of toilet and thus dispose of fecal matter as general waste, popularly referred to as flying toilets or discharged into rivers [ 65 ].

Human fecal matter is a known source for pathogenic enteric parasites, typhoid fever infection, polio virus infection, hepatitis E infection, cholera and common gastroenteritis transmitted human contact, vectors or contaminated water [ 11 ]. Studies have revealed high levels of pathogenic parasites in dump site waste confirming the risk waste handlers and pickers are exposed to [ 63 ]. There are reports of cholera outbreaks emanating from fecal waste coming from a hospital [ 66 , 67 ]. In many developing countries, the practice of sorting waste at source is almost non-existent even for high risk waste such as sharps generated from medical facilities [ 32 , 68 ].

Presence of sharp objects in waste poses a high risk of injury to both those who generate the waste, the handlers and pickers [ 15 , 16 , 69 ]. Poorly disposed surgical blades, needles frequently injure medical workers, medical housekeepers and waste collectors of medical waste while sharp objects such broken glass injure domestic workers and waste handlers.

Where waste is disposed of in open dump site accessible to pickers, the risk of injury from sharp objects is ever present [ 16 ]. Urban floods are common in many cities. While poor urban physical planning may be largely to blame for the increasing phenomenon of urban floods, partly the problem can be attributed to rampant blockage of drainage systems by solid waste [ 70 — 72 ]. Inappropriate disposal of waste, especially the non-biodegradable plastic paper bags results into these being swept downstream resulting into blockage of drainage systems.

Floods not only destroy property, they have claimed lives both on roads and homes and damage sewerage systems leading to wide spread environmental contamination with human waste and associated risk of infection transmission [ 66 , 73 ]. Blocked drainage systems are also breeding sites for diseases transmitting vectors such as mosquitoes. Injuries from chemicals can be in the forms of skin burns, inhalation burns, explosions and intoxication. Fumes from burning chemicals at dump sites or from incinerators may cause respiratory, allergic and other complications [ 3 , 15 ].

Pharmaceutical and industrial chemicals are often not disposed of appropriately and at times get back into the market. Obsolete pesticides, old batteries, among others contain chemicals that are dangerous to human life yet are often disposed of just like common litter [ 74 ]. Medical waste may also include substances that are cytotoxic and or carcinogenic. Improperly disposed substances and equipment may result is disastrous effects to the public as was the case with the caesium irradiation accident from a disused radiotherapy unit in Goiania, Brazil [ 75 ]. While many international protocols and guidelines on disposal of hazardous chemicals exist, these are not strictly adhered to especially in this part of the world.

Environmental contamination with chemicals from industries is common endangering both humans and wild life. It is a common practice for industries to discharge their waste into rivers. It is also a common practice to dispose e-waste on open dump site.

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These are often burnt to retrieve desired components and yet the fumes are hazardous [ 28 , 29 ]. The world is dependent on petroleum for energy and industrial applications. Disposal of petroleum waste is poor and yet has long lasting impact on humans and the eco-systems in general [ 76 ].

Medical and pharmaceutical chemical waste, often include antibiotics, vaccines, and radioactive substances. In Brazil, a disused and vandalized for scrap radiotherapy unit caused accidental and prolonged exposure to radiation from caesium leaving many with severe health problems while others died [ 75 ]. Common industrial waste contain dangerous chemicals such as lead, arsenic and mercury among others [ 77 ].

These chemicals may affect health through direct contact while others are through accumulation in the food chain [ 54 ]. Genotoxic substances cause changes in the internal cell structure. This change may or may not result in cancerous change. However, is strong evidence linking exposure to noxious substances and development of different types of cancer including lung cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer and reproductive tract cancers among others [ 5 , 78 , 79 ]. Similarly, radioactive substances and their radiation are known to cause cell damage and may result into different forms of cancer.

Prolonged exposure and inhalation of noxious, irritant or volatile chemicals, may lead to the respiratory system becoming hyper-sensitized and this may result into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [ 80 , 81 ]. Residents living next to dumpsites are usually affected by stench, the sight of marauding scavenging animals and social stigma. In extreme cases, solid waste has been reported to contain human body parts or aborted fetuses which may be distressing and could affect the mental well-being of the residents and those involved in waste picking.

Heavy metal poisoning has also be associated with mental disorders [ 58 , 82 ]. As developing countries continue to grow economically, so does urbanization and the challenge of solid waste management. Municipal solid waste is a recognized environmental and health challenge but also an economic resource on which thousands of individuals eke a living through picking, re-using and recycling. While the per capita generation of solid waste per day is lower in developing countries, this is rapidly increasing and this is happening when there is limited expansion in the capacity, innovation, and funding to handle the challenge [ 1 ].

Characteristically, in most countries in Africa, solid waste has a high organic content making it a fertile medium for pathogens to thrive [ 1 , 31 , 32 ]. Secondly, solid waste is rarely sorted making recycling difficult but also more hazardous to handle from point it is generated to final disposal. Furthermore, in general, less than half of all solid waste in low income countries is collected implying that a large fraction of waste is disposed of in unsafe ways posing health risks to the general public.

Lastly, even the collected waste is inadequately handled. Open dumpsites are a common disposal method and this poses serious environmental contamination risks, but also act as sources of diseases vectors and pathogenic agents [ 44 , 47 , 56 ]. Due to poor handling and maintenance, even disposal methods that are deemed safe in other setting can be hazardous in poor countries. Poorly maintained and run incinerators pose a health risk not only to the operators but also to those living in the neighborhood due incomplete combustion and subsequent release of dioxins [ 50 ].

Given the high risks of exposure to solid waste, it expected that there is a corresponding high burden of adverse health effects and mortality attributable to solid waste. The framework clarifies many of the linkages, but definitely not exhaustive due to lack of knowledge of causal linkages while in other cases where the linkages are known, the burden of the impact is not clear to many including policy makers.

However, in spite of these challenges, existing evidence on the need to appreciate the health risks associated with various types of solid waste is strong and can be a good basis for drawing more attention on improving solid waste management. This has been demonstrated among handlers of medical waste, pickers of solid waste and those living in the neighborhood of dumping sites. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C virus infection is much higher in groups exposed to waste compared to the general population [ 14 , 39 , 43 ].

Toxic substances such as heavy metals and other noxious gases that are known to cause degenerative changes in tissues are often found in higher concentrations from disposal sites or incinerators fumes [ 5 , 6 , 81 ]. These types of waste are increasing with socio-economic development and industrialization.

While definitive causal linkages between these exposures and cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other generative disorders may still remain elusive, there is enough reason to take action to reduce risk of exposure to solid waste [ 4 , 7 , 8 ]. In addition to the poor solid waste collection and disposal practices, mitigation against known risks are also limited [ 14 ].

From the literature is clear that there is a strong linkage between poor solid waste management and adverse health outcomes. A broad spectrum of groups of individuals are at risk of ill-health emanating from poor solid waste management. As the volume of waste generated increases with urbanization and industrialization, so does the complexity and content of the waste. The effects of some of the noxious waste will only manifest several years after exposure. The existing policies are not encompassing enough and their implementation is far from addressing the challenge [ 27 , 83 ].

Interventions aimed at protecting workers including use of protective wear and the public are not fully implemented and this leaves many at-high-risk populations not protected [ 84 , 85 ]. Due to weak implementation, existing policies and interventions, surveillance is almost non-existent. Existing research is also limited particularly in assessing exposure risk and health outcomes. Recognizing the extent of the challenge, and acknowledging the limited resources, there is need to engage strategically at various levels to generate evidence that will help highlight the problem and also feed into advocacy plans for sensitization of the public, public health officials, employers and all those at heightened risk of ill-health from solid waste.

This framework can be used as an advocacy tool to demand for sensitization at all levels including policy, researchers, employers, waste handlers and the general public. This is important because the effects are not limited to those handling, picking or living near disposal sites. It is a health challenge for the general public and requires a well-grounded approach to ensure that all waste is managed and disposed of in a safe manner.

Waste management should be prioritized as a social service, with adequate budget lines. Important to note that allocating money to waste management will not translate into better results unless there is adequate sensitization, good fiduciary practices and accountability. Engage several stakeholders in the management of waste to generate a sense of responsibility and interest from all stakeholders. Individuals involved in waste management should always wear recommended protective gear.

This is partly the responsibility of employers but employees also need to be sensitized on the need to adhere to safety precautions. Simple actions such not littering on the road, can go a long way in ensuring a cleaner environment. Gradual introduction of more concrete actions such as waste sorting at point of generation will go a long way in improving solid waste management.

Moving from policy to comprehensive implementation plan drawing on success stories from other countries. A starting point is to characterize waste, adapt good waste management practices, and promote use of technology in activities such as energy generation from waste. Waste is not useless! The culture of recycling should be encouraged. Recycling can help in reducing volume of waste, and reduce need for exploitation of raw materials. Hoornweg D, Bhada-Tata P. In: Urban development series, knowledge papers. Washington: World Bank; Giusti L.

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Health effects of exposure to waste incinerator emissions: a review of epidemiological studies. Ann Ist Super Sanita. Porta D, et al. Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste. Environ Health. Rushton L.

How Sweden is turning its waste into gold

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