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  1. Essays in Philosophy and Its History
  2. How to Do Philosophy
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And yet many philosophers of science retain a deep suspicion about the significa And yet many philosophers of science retain a deep suspicion about the significance of metaphysical investigations into science. This volume of new essays will explore the relationship between science and metaphysics, asking what role metaphysics should play in philosophizing about science.

The essays will address this question both through ground-level investigations of particular issues in the metaphysics of science and more general methodological investigations. They thereby contribute to an ongoing discussion concerning the future, the limits, and the possibility of metaphysics as a legitimate philosophical project. Keywords: naturalism , metaphysics , science , methodology , philosophy of science.

Essays in Philosophy and Its History

Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0. Cadell in the Strand and W. Creech, Edinburgh. Retrieved 16 June — via Internet Archive. Retrieved 13 May — via Internet Archive. Adam Smith. Classical economics Invisible hand. Categories : Books by Adam Smith Philosophy books. Namespaces Article Talk. But you can always make them break if you push them far enough. I would say that this has been, unfortunately for philosophy, the central fact of philosophy. Most philosophical debates are not merely afflicted by but driven by confusions over words. Do we have free will?

Depends what you mean by "free. Depends what you mean by "exist. I'm not sure how much credit to give him. I suspect a lot of people realized this, but reacted simply by not studying philosophy, rather than becoming philosophy professors. How did things get this way? Can something people have spent thousands of years studying really be a waste of time?

Those are interesting questions. In fact, some of the most interesting questions you can ask about philosophy. The most valuable way to approach the current philosophical tradition may be neither to get lost in pointless speculations like Berkeley, nor to shut them down like Wittgenstein, but to study it as an example of reason gone wrong. History Western philosophy really begins with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. What we know of their predecessors comes from fragments and references in later works; their doctrines could be described as speculative cosmology that occasionally strays into analysis.

Presumably they were driven by whatever makes people in every other society invent cosmologies. There started to be a lot more analysis. I suspect Plato and Aristotle were encouraged in this by progress in math. Mathematicians had by then shown that you could figure things out in a much more conclusive way than by making up fine sounding stories about them.

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It was presumably many thousands of years between when people first started describing things as hot or cold and when someone asked "what is heat? We don't know if Plato or Aristotle were the first to ask any of the questions they did. But their works are the oldest we have that do this on a large scale, and there is a freshness not to say naivete about them that suggests some of the questions they asked were new to them, at least. Aristotle in particular reminds me of the phenomenon that happens when people discover something new, and are so excited by it that they race through a huge percentage of the newly discovered territory in one lifetime.

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If so, that's evidence of how new this kind of thinking was. It was impressive even to ask the questions they did. That doesn't mean they always came up with good answers. It's not considered insulting to say that ancient Greek mathematicians were naive in some respects, or at least lacked some concepts that would have made their lives easier. So I hope people will not be too offended if I propose that ancient philosophers were similarly naive. In particular, they don't seem to have fully grasped what I earlier called the central fact of philosophy: that words break if you push them too far.

Much to their surprise, they didn't arrive at answers they agreed upon. In fact, they rarely seemed to arrive at answers at all. They were in effect arguing about artifacts induced by sampling at too low a resolution. The proof of how useless some of their answers turned out to be is how little effect they have. No one after reading Aristotle's Metaphysics does anything differently as a result.

No, they may not have to. Hardy's boast that number theory had no use whatsoever wouldn't disqualify it. But he turned out to be mistaken. In fact, it's suspiciously hard to find a field of math that truly has no practical use. And Aristotle's explanation of the ultimate goal of philosophy in Book A of the Metaphysics implies that philosophy should be useful too.

Theoretical Knowledge Aristotle's goal was to find the most general of general principles. The examples he gives are convincing: an ordinary worker builds things a certain way out of habit; a master craftsman can do more because he grasps the underlying principles. The trend is clear: the more general the knowledge, the more admirable it is. But then he makes a mistake—possibly the most important mistake in the history of philosophy.

He has noticed that theoretical knowledge is often acquired for its own sake, out of curiosity, rather than for any practical need. So he proposes there are two kinds of theoretical knowledge: some that's useful in practical matters and some that isn't. Since people interested in the latter are interested in it for its own sake, it must be more noble. So he sets as his goal in the Metaphysics the exploration of knowledge that has no practical use.

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  • Which means no alarms go off when he takes on grand but vaguely understood questions and ends up getting lost in a sea of words. His mistake was to confuse motive and result. Certainly, people who want a deep understanding of something are often driven by curiosity rather than any practical need. But that doesn't mean what they end up learning is useless. It's very valuable in practice to have a deep understanding of what you're doing; even if you're never called on to solve advanced problems, you can see shortcuts in the solution of simple ones, and your knowledge won't break down in edge cases, as it would if you were relying on formulas you didn't understand.

    Knowledge is power. That's what makes theoretical knowledge prestigious. It's also what causes smart people to be curious about certain things and not others; our DNA is not so disinterested as we might think. So while ideas don't have to have immediate practical applications to be interesting, the kinds of things we find interesting will surprisingly often turn out to have practical applications. The reason Aristotle didn't get anywhere in the Metaphysics was partly that he set off with contradictory aims: to explore the most abstract ideas, guided by the assumption that they were useless.

    He was like an explorer looking for a territory to the north of him, starting with the assumption that it was located to the south.


    And since his work became the map used by generations of future explorers, he sent them off in the wrong direction as well. The Metaphysics is mostly a failed experiment. A few ideas from it turned out to be worth keeping; the bulk of it has had no effect at all. The Metaphysics is among the least read of all famous books.

    It's not hard to understand the way Newton's Principia is, but the way a garbled message is. Arguably it's an interesting failed experiment. But unfortunately that was not the conclusion Aristotle's successors derived from works like the Metaphysics.

    Linguistic Content: New Essays on the History of Philosophy of Language

    Instead of version 1s to be superseded, the works of Plato and Aristotle became revered texts to be mastered and discussed. And so things remained for a shockingly long time. It was not till around in Europe, where the center of gravity had shifted by then that one found people confident enough to treat Aristotle's work as a catalog of mistakes. And even then they rarely said so outright. If it seems surprising that the gap was so long, consider how little progress there was in math between Hellenistic times and the Renaissance.

    In the intervening years an unfortunate idea took hold: that it was not only acceptable to produce works like the Metaphysics , but that it was a particularly prestigious line of work, done by a class of people called philosophers. No one thought to go back and debug Aristotle's motivating argument.

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    And so instead of correcting the problem Aristotle discovered by falling into it—that you can easily get lost if you talk too loosely about very abstract ideas—they continued to fall into it. The Singularity Curiously, however, the works they produced continued to attract new readers. Traditional philosophy occupies a kind of singularity in this respect. If you write in an unclear way about big ideas, you produce something that seems tantalizingly attractive to inexperienced but intellectually ambitious students.

    Till one knows better, it's hard to distinguish something that's hard to understand because the writer was unclear in his own mind from something like a mathematical proof that's hard to understand because the ideas it represents are hard to understand. To someone who hasn't learned the difference, traditional philosophy seems extremely attractive: as hard and therefore impressive as math, yet broader in scope. That was what lured me in as a high school student.

    This singularity is even more singular in having its own defense built in.