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A child's development of interactional competence in a Swedish L2 classroom
Walter , D. Wertsch , J.
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Williams , L. Wong , J. Wood , D. Young , R. Zhang , H. Zinchenko , V. Al Masaeed, Khaled Alonso, Rosa Alonso Dolce, Frank M. It is concluded that learners are getting less than what they need to fully develop their interactional competence in Spanish. The analysis makes clear our need to give more thoughtful consideration to how we define the comprehensibility of FL classroom interaction and the role that it plays in developing L2 interactional competence. Skip to main content. Email Facebook Twitter. Abstract The interactive practices of foreign language FL classrooms are significant to the development of learners' L2 interactional competence in that these practices are often the only exposure to FL talk that the learners get, especially in the early years of language instruction.
Thumbnails Document Outline Attachments. Highlight all Match case. Whole words. Toggle Sidebar. Zoom Out. More Information Less Information. As and C2. When that was the case, Bonferroni ah! Table 1 not produce any type of alignment move; shows the proportional frequency of each It is In C2, agreement markers, and As shown in Table 1, the use stated the last part of his previous turn of self-assessments represented This example shows under discussion and contained the copula- how participants at times oriented their ac- tive verb ser to be and an adjective e.
Although participants at times shorter evaluative comments an average used full-sentence responses, fragmentary number of 3. The location of moments of some participants also produced self-assess- self-assessment also differed from C1 to ments aimed at evaluating the linguistic C2.
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While in C1 they appeared primarily accuracy of their own speech in a previous —37 out of the 40 instances—in the last turn. This form of self-assessment showed turn of the sequence i. An example of such self-regulation is 20 out of the 45 instances—were found at illustrated in line 29 of Excerpt 1. That is, in C1 participants used two turns while in C2 they only used one. Eh I have three friends What is uh a favorite movie?
Only occasionally did an evalua- 1. These two excerpts illustrate changes in 1. Although stated as a restaurant my uh we uh eat complete sentence, this response represents uh steak bistec. Assessments of details or reasons to justify their statements.
The most commonly used found in Yo creo que: les gustan: Uh, yes, yes, he likes. As can be seen in 1. Most occur- Yes, what sports uh basketball, rences of this type of move found in the data baseball, what? The only in-. Good, I like football too. In C2, by contrast, participants soccer indicated a shared worldview.
After determining The 16 instances found in both conversa- the distribution of alignment moves in the tions were limited to the word level and two conversations, the researcher conducted occurred when one of the speakers assisted one-way repeated-measures ANOVAs to the interlocutor in producing a lexical item. Bon- ferroni post-hoc tests were then performed Excerpt 8: C2, S11 and S12 to identify dissimilarities more precisely. Figures 1 [Tired? No can-] No With regard to changes between the use cansado eh:: 1. No Tir-] No tired frequency of use of acknowledgments eh happy, happy.
Later in ferent options from their linguistic reper- the conversation Line 26 , in a similar sit- toire. As we can see in the following excerpts, she not 7 S Voy a: 1. I am going to uh to go a ba- baseball game. We are going to go a My friends are Jordan, and restaurant.
Chelsey and Ally. You are going to uh no uhm Whe- Where are your we are going to leave uh friends? They live in Burlington. Uh in the morning. The paired t test interesting also. The participants also used alignment To further analyze this change, a corre- moves to share the conversational respon- lation was carried out to examine the rela- sibility for achieving mutual understand- tionship between the number of alignment ing.
While in C1, the expression of moves per participant in C1 and in C2. That is, the the alignment moves. In C2, however, number of alignment moves produced by that was less the case and, as a result, the the two interlocutors was more similar in gap between the output of the two inter- C2 than in C1. To test this observation, the total amount of align- ment moves per individual was computed Discussion and the difference in number of alignment Because most studies of L2 spoken interac- moves per pair for C1 and for C2 was cal- tion have analyzed data from conversations culated.
Then, mean difference scores for between a native speaker and an intermedi- C1 and C2 were statistically compared us- ate or advanced nonnative speaker, little is ing a matched-samples t test. That is, they produced longer spective Markee, ; Seedhouse, One way that medium of the conversation i. In contrast, moves in the tion of self-evaluative comments about the upper end of the continuum were either grammatical form of the previous turn. This infrequent i. This was to be expected, given the sense in this context if one takes into con- high level of alignment required to perform sideration the institutional purpose of the these types of moves.
Even though be- learning context, but also hopefully in the ginning learners in this study were able to world outside the classroom. From this perspective, fre- ment moves, as suggested by Hall , quent opportunities to engage in semi- these results nonetheless suggest that par- structured conversations seem essential.
While between C1 and C2. Incorporating analysis of au- discourse practice. As the participants thentic conversations across a range of strove to create a sphere of mutual under- topics and registers as well as providing standing, they tested different options from formal instruction and feedback on the their albeit limited linguistic repertoire, use of alignment moves may help learners learned from their own attempts as well as develop their IC faster and in a more native from those of their interlocutor, and were way.
As Young , p. A next step goodness, much work still to be done. Concerns 2. While acknowledging that nonverbal classroom and further participation for per- devices such as gaze and body posture sonal and professional purposes in language are also crucial in the expression of align- communities around the world.
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University of Texas, conversations. The results demonstrated Austin. Alignment and interaction tive-like standards, English native speakers in a sociocognitive approach to second lan- in the early stages of learning Spanish were guage acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 91, — Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, their own attempts but also from those of Special Issue on Linguistic Perspectives from their conversation partner. Oller wise scaffolded and perhaps also when sup- Ed.
Rowley, MA: Newbury House.